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Aujourd’hui — 7 juillet 2020nixCraft

How to secure Nginx with Let’s Encrypt on OpenSUSE 15.1/15.2

Par Vivek Gite

Let's Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority for your website, email server, database server and more. This page shows how to use Let's Encrypt to install certificate for Nginx web server get SSL labs A+ score on an OpenSUSE Linux version 15.1 or 15.2

The post How to secure Nginx with Let’s Encrypt on OpenSUSE 15.1/15.2 appeared first on nixCraft.

Hier — 6 juillet 2020nixCraft

OpenSUSE install lsof package to get rid of ‘zypper ps’ errors

Par Vivek Gite

I run the following command but getting error:
$ zypper ps
    Check failed:
    Please install package 'lsof' first.

How do I fix this error? How can I use the 'zypper ps' command on SELS/OpenSUSE 15.1/15.2 to find out if system reboot requires or not?

The post OpenSUSE install lsof package to get rid of ‘zypper ps’ errors appeared first on nixCraft.

À partir d’avant-hiernixCraft

Curl Shell Script To Purge Cache From Stackpath CDN

Par Vivek Gite
A content delivery network or content distribution network (CDN) is a system of servers containing copies of data, placed at various points in a network so as to maximize bandwidth for access to the data from clients throughout the network. Please note that the following script will only work with Stackpath CDN. You need to get API access keys using stackpath portal.

How to secure Lighttpd with Let’s Encrypt TLS/SSL certificate on Debian/Ubuntu

Par Vivek Gite

I read your Nginx and Let’s Encrypt free SSL certificate tutorial. However, I use Lighttpd web server on AWS cloud. How do I secure my Lighttpd web server with Let's Encrypt free SSL certificate on my Ubuntu Linux 16.04/18.04/20.04 LTS or Debian Linux 8.x/9.x/10.x server? How can I configure Lighttpd with Let's Encrypt free TLS/SSL certificate?

The post How to secure Lighttpd with Let’s Encrypt TLS/SSL certificate on Debian/Ubuntu appeared first on nixCraft.

Apache with Let's Encrypt Certificates on CentOS 8

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I read that Let's Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate for web server and other usages. How do I secure Apache with Let's Encrypt Certificates on CentOS 8?

The post Apache with Let's Encrypt Certificates on CentOS 8 appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 3 juillet 2020 à 21:09

How to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.1 to 15.2 using the CLI

Par Vivek Gite

The latest OpenSUSE version is 15.2 and is an opportunity for both desktop and server users on the previous 15.1 release to update OpenSUSE Linux to get the newest software stack. It is easy to follow the procedure to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.1 to 15.2. In this tutorial, we will explain how to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.1 to 15.2.

The post How to upgrade OpenSUSE 15.1 to 15.2 using the CLI appeared first on nixCraft.

  • 29 juin 2020 à 12:53

How to install vim on OpenSUSE/SUSE Linux using zypper

Par Vivek Gite

I need VIM text editor on my OpenSUSE cloud server, and it is missing. How do I install vim on OpenSUSE/SUSE Linux cloud server?

The post How to install vim on OpenSUSE/SUSE Linux using zypper appeared first on nixCraft.

How to create MySQL user and grant permissions in AWS RDS

Par Vivek Gite

How do I create a new MySQL user and grant permissions in AWS RDS cloud service from the Linux command line?

The post How to create MySQL user and grant permissions in AWS RDS appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install and use vtop graphical terminal activity monitor on Linux

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} The vtop is a graphical activity monitor for the command line written in Node.js. How do I install vtop on my Linux desktop or server?

The post How to install and use vtop graphical terminal activity monitor on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 23 juin 2020 à 13:47

How to hide Nginx version on Linux and Unix

Par Vivek Gite

By default, the Nginx version displayed when you query HTTP headers or error generated by the Nginx server. This quick guide explains how to hide or remove the Nginx version on Linux or Unix server without restarting the system.

The post How to hide Nginx version on Linux and Unix appeared first on nixCraft.

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Set Up OpenVPN Server In 5 Minutes

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I am a new Ubuntu Linux 20.04 LTS server system administrator. How can I set up an OpenVPN Server on an Ubuntu Linux version 20.04 LTS server to shield my browsing activity from bad guys on public Wi-Fi, encrypt all traffic while connecting to 4G LTE network, and more?

The post Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Set Up OpenVPN Server In 5 Minutes appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 16 juin 2020 à 11:29

CentOS Linux 8.2 (2004) released and here is how to upgrade it

Par Vivek Gite

CentOS Linux 8.2 (2004) released. It is a Linux distribution derived from RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux) 8.2 source code. CentOS was created when Red Hat stopped providing RHEL free. CentOS 8.2 gives complete control of its open-source software packages and is fully customized for research needs or for running a high-performance website without the need for license fees. Let us see what's new in CentOS 8.2 (2004) and how to upgrade existing CentOS 8.1.1199 server to 8.2.2004 using the command line.

The post CentOS Linux 8.2 (2004) released and here is how to upgrade it appeared first on nixCraft.

Exit command in Linux/Unix

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} Sometimes we need to stop the execution of our script when a condition is satisfied. For example, if tar command not installed, stop the execution of our shell script. We can also take action based on the exit code of the command. Say if ping command is successful, continue with script or exit with an error. Let us see how to use the exit command and the exit statuses in our scripts.

The post Exit command in Linux/Unix appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 11 juin 2020 à 12:12

Ansible reboot Linux machine or server with playbooks

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I need to reboot the VM or bare metal Linux machine/server using Ansible and wait for it to come back, but it does not work with playbook as descried here. How to reboot Linux server with Ansible?

The post Ansible reboot Linux machine or server with playbooks appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 10 juin 2020 à 06:38

BASH Shell Redirect stderr To stdout ( redirect stderr to a File )

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} This page explains bash I/O redirection that you can use for redirect stderr and stdout to a file at the shell prompt or in your shell scripts.

The post BASH Shell Redirect stderr To stdout ( redirect stderr to a File ) appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 6 juin 2020 à 11:10

How to install Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Par Vivek Gite

How do I install the Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux server?

The post How to install Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install fcgiwrap for Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04

Par Vivek Gite


The fcgiwrap is a simple server for running CGI apps over FastCGI. We can use it to provide clean CGI support to the nginx webserver. It is a lightweight server with zero-configuration options, making it possible to use the same pool to run different sites. This page explains how to install fcgiwrap on Ubuntu 20.04.

The post How to install fcgiwrap for Nginx on Ubuntu 20.04 appeared first on nixCraft.

How to delete a single command from history on a Linux/Unix Bash shell

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I am working in Ubuntu bash terminal application and remotely on a RHEL server in cloud platform. I typed the wrong and dangerous command which I no longer wish to remember. How do I get rid of dangerous command in the history file? How can I remove or delete a single command from bash history file?

The post How to delete a single command from history on a Linux/Unix Bash shell appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 4 juin 2020 à 10:21

How to configure AWS SES with Postfix MTA

Par Vivek Gite

How do I configure Amazon SES With Postfix mail server to send email under a CentOS/RHEL/Fedora/Ubuntu/Debian Linux server?

The post How to configure AWS SES with Postfix MTA appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Linux Hard Disk Encryption With LUKS [ cryptsetup encrypt command ]

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I carry my Linux powered laptop just about everywhere. How do I protect my private data stored on partition or removable storage media against bare-metal attacks where anyone can get their hands on my laptop or usb pen drive while traveling?

The post How To Linux Hard Disk Encryption With LUKS [ cryptsetup encrypt command ] appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 28 mai 2020 à 14:23

8GB Raspberry Pi 4 released for $75 – Specifications

Par Vivek Gite

8GB Raspberry Pi 4 released for USD 75
Back in June 2019, the Raspberry PI 4 model was released, and it was an incredible update over the older model with up to 4GB ram. Today we see the long-rumored 8GB Raspberry Pi 4 released and priced at the just US $75. Here are the complete specs for an updated 64-bit credit card size Raspberry PI 4 8GB model with Linux desktop computer level of performance.

The post 8GB Raspberry Pi 4 released for $75 – Specifications appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install xfs and create xfs file system on Debian/Ubuntu Linux

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I recently switched to a Ubuntu/Debian Linux server from a CentOS/RHEL 7.x. How do I install xfs (mkfs.xfs command) on a Debian/Ubuntu Linux server? How do I create and manage file XFS file system on a Ubuntu or Debian Linux LTS server?

The post How to install xfs and create xfs file system on Debian/Ubuntu Linux appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 27 mai 2020 à 12:44

How to install htop on Debian Linux using apt-get

Par Vivek Gite

I am a new user of Debian operating system. How do I install htop on Debian using the apt command or apt-get command?

The post How to install htop on Debian Linux using apt-get appeared first on nixCraft.

Linux run a command with a time limit (timeout)

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I want to start command called foo, and kill it if still running after given DURATION in seconds. How do I run a command a time Limit on Linux? How do I run a Linux command, and have it timeout (abort) after N seconds? Can you give timeout command examples in Linux?

The post Linux run a command with a time limit (timeout) appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 26 mai 2020 à 12:01

How to backup and restore LXD containers

Par Vivek Gite

LXD backup and restore
Now that I set up an LXD container, how do I backup and restore LXD containers running on Ubuntu/Debian or Fedora/CentOS Linux server?

The post How to backup and restore LXD containers appeared first on nixCraft.

How to find ulimit for user on Linux

Par Vivek Gite

How can I find the correct ulimit values for a user account or process on Linux systems?

The post How to find ulimit for user on Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Vi / VIM: Find And Replace All Text Substitute Command

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I am a new Linux user. I started to use vim or vi text editor. How do I find all occurrence of the word called 'eth0' and replace it with 'br0' on Linux operating systems?

The post Vi / VIM: Find And Replace All Text Substitute Command appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 23 mai 2020 à 21:36

bat Linux command – A cat clone with written in Rust

Par Vivek Gite

bat Linux command in action on my Ubuntu desktop
The cat (short for concatenate) command is one of the most frequently used flexible commands on Linux and Unix-like operating systems. Say hello to bat Linux command, which is a cat command written in Rust programming language. The bat command comes with syntax highlighting, git integration, and works as is a drop-in cat command replacement. Let us see how to install bat on Linux and Unix system for fun and profit.

The post bat Linux command – A cat clone with written in Rust appeared first on nixCraft.

How to limit SSH (TCP port 22) connections with ufw on Ubuntu/Debian Linux

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} Want to limiting SSH connections with ufw? Try the following syntax to deny connections from an IP address that has attempted to initiate 6 or more connections in the last 30 seconds.

The post How to limit SSH (TCP port 22) connections with ufw on Ubuntu/Debian Linux appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 18 mai 2020 à 04:55

How to set up MariaDB SSL and secure connections from clients

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I am looking to set up MariaDB SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and secure connections from MySQL client and PHP/Python application. How do I enable SSL for MariaDB server and client running on Linux or Unix-like system?

The post How to set up MariaDB SSL and secure connections from clients appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 15 mai 2020 à 21:51

How to extract tar.xz files in Linux and unzip all files

Par Vivek Gite


How do I extract tar.xz files in Linux? Can you tell me command to unzip linux-5.6.13.tar.xz file? How can I uncompressing (or decompressing) all files in the current directory?

The post How to extract tar.xz files in Linux and unzip all files appeared first on nixCraft.

Search Multiple Words / String Pattern Using grep Command on Bash shell

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} How do I search multiple strings or words using the grep command? For example I'd like to search word1, word2, word3 and so on within /path/to/file. How do I force grep to search multiple words? How can I grep for multiple patterns on Linux, OS X, FreeBSD, or Unix-like system? What is the command to search multiple words in Linux?

The post Search Multiple Words / String Pattern Using grep Command on Bash shell appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 14 mai 2020 à 06:12

How to install vim on CentOS 8 using dnf/yum

Par Vivek Gite

I like VIM text editor a lot, and it is missing on my CentOS 8 box. How do I install vim on CentOS 8 Linux cloud server?

The post How to install vim on CentOS 8 using dnf/yum appeared first on nixCraft.

How to delete KVM VM guest using virsh command

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I am a new Linux and KVM user. How do I delete a VM guest with virsh command line on Linux operating system? How do I delete a virtual machine called vps42 on Ubuntu or CentOS Linux server?

The post How to delete KVM VM guest using virsh command appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 12 mai 2020 à 17:05

How to check whether AMT is enabled and provisioned under Linux

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} How do I check whether Intel Active Management Technology (AMT) and Intel Standard Manageability (ISM) enabled or disabled under Linux using command line?

The post How to check whether AMT is enabled and provisioned under Linux appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 11 mai 2020 à 11:51

Linux how long a process has been running?

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} Explains commands to identify process IDs (PID) in Linux systems and then determine how long they have been running on your machine or cloud server using the CLI.

The post Linux how long a process has been running? appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 10 mai 2020 à 14:37

How to install KVM on CentOS 8 Headless Server

Par Vivek Gite

How can I install KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) on a CentOS 8 (CentOS Enterprise Linux) headeless server? How do I set up KVM on a CentOS 8 and use cloud images/cloud-init for installing guest VM?

The post How to install KVM on CentOS 8 Headless Server appeared first on nixCraft.

CentOS 8 add network bridge (br0) with nmcli command

Par Vivek Gite

How do I configure my CentOS 8 and add network bridge (br0) with the nmcli command? How can I create a Linux network bridge on CentOS Linux 8 server for KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine)?

The post CentOS 8 add network bridge (br0) with nmcli command appeared first on nixCraft.

How To Enable and Install EPEL Repo on CentOS 8

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} How do I install the Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL), such as Fedora EPEL repo on a CentOS Enterprise Linux server version 8.x? How to enable EPEL repo on CentOS 8?

The post How To Enable and Install EPEL Repo on CentOS 8 appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 9 mai 2020 à 10:47

Linux mount an LVM volume / partition command

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I have some data on second SATA hard disk created by Fedora Linux installer with some data. How do I mount an LVM volume/partition in Linux to access my data? Can you tell me the command to mount LVM partition in Linux and access my data from another disk?

The post Linux mount an LVM volume / partition command appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 8 mai 2020 à 13:41

How to install Adminer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Par Vivek Gite

How do I install Adminer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS for database management over the web?

The post How to install Adminer on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS appeared first on nixCraft.

Top 32 Nmap Command Examples For Linux Sys/Network Admins

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} Nmap is short for Network Mapper. It is an open-source security tool for network exploration, security scanning, and auditing. However, the Nmap command comes with lots of options that can make the utility more robust and difficult to follow for new users. The purpose of this guide is to introduce a user to the Nmap command line tool to scan a host or network to find out the possible vulnerable points in the hosts. You will also learn how to use Nmap for offensive and defensive purposes.

The post Top 32 Nmap Command Examples For Linux Sys/Network Admins appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 7 mai 2020 à 18:13

Nginx restore real IP address when behind a reverse proxy

Par Vivek Gite

Nginx restore real IP address when nginx server is behind a reverse proxy

My Nginx web server is behind a reverse proxy server. How do I restore the original and real IP address of my client/visitors when behind a reverse proxy server such as AWS Cloudfront, Fastly, Cloudflare CDN/WAF?

The post Nginx restore real IP address when behind a reverse proxy appeared first on nixCraft.

How to delete group in Linux using groupdel command

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} I am a new Linux system user and sysadmin too. How can I delete a group in Linux operating system using the command line option? How do I remove a group from Linux? Can you tell us command to delete group in Linux?

The post How to delete group in Linux using groupdel command appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 7 mai 2020 à 05:27

How To Secure Apache with mod_md Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Par Vivek Gite

How do I secure Apache with mod_md Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 and obtain a free TLS/SSL certificate? How do I secure Apache 2 with Let's Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS server?

The post How To Secure Apache with mod_md Let’s Encrypt on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS appeared first on nixCraft.

How to install man pages on Ubuntu Linux

Par Vivek Gite

I installed the minimal Ubuntu Linux 20.04 LTS cloud server, and now man pages are missing from my image. How do I install man pages on Ubuntu Linux 16.04/18.04/20.04 LTS server?

The post How to install man pages on Ubuntu Linux appeared first on nixCraft.

Bash add pause prompt in a shell script ( bash pause command )

Par Vivek Gite

{Updated} Let us see how to pause our bash based shell script for a given number of times in seconds/minutes/hours before continuing to next operation/command running on a Linux or Unix-like systems.

The post Bash add pause prompt in a shell script ( bash pause command ) appeared first on nixCraft.
  • 6 mai 2020 à 02:50

How to install Apache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

Par Vivek Gite

How do I install the Apache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux server?

The post How to install Apache on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS appeared first on nixCraft.

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