Lateo.net - Flux RSS en pagaille (pour en ajouter : @ moi)

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How to redirect standard (stderr) error in bash

Par Vivek Gite — 6 avril 2021 à 13:12

{Updated} I am trying to redirect bash message into file named output.log. But, it is not getting redirected. How do I redirect both standard output and standard error in bash shell? In Linux, how do I redirect error messages?

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Download of the day: AlmaLinux DVD/CD ISO

Par Vivek Gite — 6 avril 2021 à 13:09

Download of the day AlmaLinux DVD CD ISO Welcome
AlmaLinux is the first significant replacement for CentOS Linux 8. As you know, CentOS 8 Linux, as a rebuild of RHEL 8, will end in 2021. AlmaLinux is a free and open-source RHEL 8 fork built by the team at CloudLinux, inspired by the community. Let us take a quick look at AlmaLinux 8 and how to download AlmaLinux DVD/CD ISO on your system.

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cpufetch – awesome CPU architecture info tool for Linux and macOS

Par Vivek Gite — 3 avril 2021 à 13:24

AMD cpufetch
Typically we use the lscpu command or /proc/cpuinfo command on Linux to check CPU information. I recently found another simplistic yet fancier CPU architecture fetching tool inspired by neofetch, pfetch or screenfetch. Let us see how to install cpufetch on Linux, macOS, Android, and Windows to fetch CPU details.

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pinfo - Read Linux Info Documentation in Colors

Par Vivek Gite — 3 avril 2021 à 12:35

{Updated} You can display man pages in colors under Linux and Unix-like systems. Similarly, you can display info pages in colors.

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How to install ncdu on Linux / Unix to see disk usage

Par Vivek Gite — 3 avril 2021 à 00:07

Running ncdu on FreeBSD Unix server
The du (disk usage) command summarizes directory trees' sizes, including all of their contents and individual files' sizes on Linux and Unix-like systems such as macOS. It helps track down space hogs. In other words, we can list directories and files that consume large amounts of space on a hard disk drive. Let us see the ncdu command, a curses-based version of the well-known du command.

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How to find largest file in directory recursively using find/du under Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 1 avril 2021 à 09:59

{Updated} I have 500GB SSD installed on my Linux server. My web server is running out of the disk space. I need to find a biggest or largest file concerning file size on the disk. How do I find largest file in a directory recursively using the find command?

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How to create MySQL admin user (superuser) account

Par Vivek Gite — 1 avril 2021 à 09:01

{Updated} Explains how to make a superuser (admin) with root-like access to the MySQL/MariaDB databases with secure plugins. Further, learn how to create an encrypted file to store admin user/password, host, and TLS info securely for ease of login via Linux/Unix CLI

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How to use scp/rsync to copy file with a colon (:) in it

Par Vivek Gite — 31 mars 2021 à 23:33

{Updated} How do I copy file with scp or rsync with a colon in it?

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How to configure static IP address on Alpine Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 29 mars 2021 à 12:29

At home or in a cloud environment, IP addresses are assigned dynamically by the DHCP server. Setting a static IP address on your Alpine Linux server is required for various reasons. For instance, Alpine Linux is configured as a DHCP server or KVM server to host multiple VMs. Static IP address makes it easy to work with port forwarding, firewalling, and HTTPS server too. This quick tutorial will explain how to set up a static IP address on Alpine Linux.

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Interview with Abhinav Upadhyay, NetBSD contributor and machine learning software developer

Par Vivek Gite — 29 mars 2021 à 09:46

Abhinav UpadhyayAbhinav Upadhyay is an Indian software developer, the NetBSD project contributor, and works with the exciting field of machine learning (ML). Recently I did a quick Q and A with Abhinav about his life-changing journey with NetBSD, getting started with ML and FLOSS community, and his daily workflow.

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How To View CPU Temperature On Alpine Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 28 mars 2021 à 08:09

Alpine Linux comes with a monitoring sensors package called lm-sensors. It is an easy-to-use and open-source application for monitoring CPU temperatures, voltage, and fans. This page explains how to install, configure, and use lm-sensors on Alpine Linux to view CPU temperature and other data on your Alpine Linux-powered laptop or server.

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How to restart systemd without rebooting Linux when critical libraries installed

Par Vivek Gite — 27 mars 2021 à 11:28

Whenever we update a critical library such as OpenSSL, we need to restart any daemons that use the library. Systemd with PID 1 itself also uses OpenSSL. How do you restart the systemd daemon without rebooting Linux and other services such as Nginx, SSHD, Firewalld? Here are some tips.

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Bash get exit code of command on a Linux / Unix

Par Vivek Gite — 26 mars 2021 à 19:56

{Updated} I am a new Linux system user. How do I get the exit code of a command? How do I get the exit code or status of Linux or Unix shell command and store it into a shell variable?

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How to install vnstat on Alpine Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 24 mars 2021 à 10:51

VnStat is a free and open-source app for servers and routers. It is a console-based network traffic monitor. It keeps a log of the 5-minute interval, hourly, daily, monthly, and yearly network traffic for the selected interface(s). Let us see how to install vnStat on the Alpine Linux server to keep a tab on bandwidth usage.

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25 Iptables Netfilter Firewall Examples For Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 24 mars 2021 à 09:55

{Updated} Linux comes with a host based firewall called Netfilter. The netfilter is a set of hooks inside the Linux kernel that allows kernel modules to register callback functions with the network stack. A registered callback function is then called back for every packet that traverses the respective hook within the network stack. This Linux based firewall is controlled by the program called iptables to handles filtering for IPv4, and ip6tables handles filtering for IPv6. I strongly recommend that you first read our quick tutorial that explains how to configure a host-based firewall called Netfilter (iptables) under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora / Redhat Enterprise Linux. If you are using Ubuntu/Debian Linux, see how to setup UFW for more info. This post lists most simple iptables solutions required by a new Linux user to secure his or her Linux operating system from intruders.

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Interview with curl creator and Swedish software developer Daniel Stenberg

Par Vivek Gite — 21 mars 2021 à 22:55

Daniel Stenberg
Even if you do not use the curl command daily, the chances are high that you are still using curl and don't know. IoT and tons of other services on the Internet depend upon libcurl for network operations. Daniel Stenberg is a Swedish software developer, recipient of the Polhem Prize 2017, on cURL. Recently I did a quick Q and A with Daniel about starting the curl project and his daily workflow.

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How to install curl on Alpine Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 20 mars 2021 à 10:20

Curl is URL retrieval (download/upload) command-line utility and library. It is free software for Alpine Linux. This page explains how to search and install curl on Alpine Linux using the apk command.

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How to send emails with Postfix and Amazon AWS SES on RHEL/CentOS 8

Par Vivek Gite — 11 mars 2021 à 11:58

Amazon Simple Email Service (SES) is a hosted cloud-based email service to send and receive email using your email addresses and domains. Typically SES is used for sending bulk email or routing emails without hosting MTA. One can use the CLI or server-side programming languages such as PHP or Python to transfer an email via SES. This quick tutorial will show you how to route all outgoing emails with Postfix and Amazon AWS SES on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or CentOS version 8.

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How to test the network speed/throughput between two Linux servers

Par Vivek Gite — 11 mars 2021 à 05:20

{Updated} I have setup total four servers in cloud based data center. They run either CentOS or Ubuntu Linux. I need to make sure clustered file system performance is reasonable as my servers shared with other users. How do I check the speed between the two Linux servers using command line options for private LAN/VLAN?

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How to enable automatic updates for RHEL/CentOS 8

Par Vivek Gite — 10 mars 2021 à 10:45

I talked about yum-cron that provides auto yum updates nightly via cron. However, this package is no longer available on CentOS/RHEL 8 or Fedora Linux 29 or above. So how do you enable and install updates atomically on a CentOS/RHEL version 8.x? They have a new package called dnf-automatic. This page explains how to install and then enable dnf-automatic to install updates for you in the background.

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Linux Filesystem Error: Transaction failed when using LXD

Par Vivek Gite — 6 mars 2021 à 10:48

I am a big fan of LXD, a next-generation Linux system container manager and default on Ubuntu. It allows me to run desktop apps or server apps in an isolated environment. Ubuntu provides LXD with robust security in mind. However, this might lead to undesired side effects, such as individual packages under OpenSUSE or CentOS Linux may not be updated. One such package is the filesystem package. Let us see how to fix Error: Transaction failed when you try to update filesystem package under CentOS, OpenSUSE, and other Linux containers running under LXD.

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How To Update Fedora Linux using terminal for latest software patches

Par Vivek Gite — 4 mars 2021 à 05:04

{Updated} Irecently switched from Windows server to Fedora 32/33 server running in the cloud. How do I apply software updates and patches on Fedora 32/33 server using the terminal application?

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How to set up WireGuard VPN server on Ubuntu 20.04

Par Vivek Gite — 3 mars 2021 à 23:29

{Updated} This page explains how to install and set up WireGuard VPN on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Linux server.

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How to find NetworkManager version on Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 3 mars 2021 à 23:25

How do I check or find NetworkManager version on Linux distribution?

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How to enable LUKS disk encryption with keyfile on Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 3 mars 2021 à 11:33

We can easily add a key file to LUKS disk encryption on Linux when running the cryptsetup command. A key file is used as the passphrase to unlock an encrypted volume. The passphrase allows Linux users to open encrypted disks utilizing a keyboard or over an ssh-based session. There are different types of key files we can add and enable LUKS disk encryption on Linux as per our needs:

  1. Passphrase keyfile - It is a key file holding a simple passphrase.
  2. Random text keyfile - This is a key file comprising a block of random characters which is much more resistant to dictionary attacks than a simple passphrase-based key file.
  3. Binary keyfile - We can defile an image, video, or any other static binary file as key file for LUKS. It makes it harder to identify as a key file. It would look like a regular image file or video clip to the attacker instead of a random text keyfile.

Let us see how to enable LUKS disk encryption with a key file.

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Python For Loop Examples

Par Vivek Gite — 2 mars 2021 à 20:37

{Updated} How and when do I use for loops under Python programming language? How can I use the break and continue statements to alter the flow of a Python loop?

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How To Use chmod and chown Command in Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 28 février 2021 à 11:05

{Updated} This page explains how to use chmod and chown command on Linux or Unix-like systems.

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How to check if file does not exist in Bash

Par Vivek Gite — 27 février 2021 à 20:53

How can I check if a file does not exist in a Bash script?

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Nginx: 413 - Request Entity Too Large Error and Solution

Par Vivek Gite — 27 février 2021 à 19:03

{Updated} I am getting 'Nginx 413 Request Entity Too Large' error. How do I fix this problem and allow image upload upto 2MB in size using nginx web-server working in reverse proxy or stand-alone mode on Unix like operating systems?

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FreeBSD jail, xen, and .pam_login_access security fixes released

Par Vivek Gite — 26 février 2021 à 12:48

FreeBSD jail, xen, and .pam_login_access security fixes released
All supported versions of FreeBSD are affected by various security bugs that need to be applied ASAP. If the process is privileged, it may escape jail and gain full access to the FreeBSD system. Similarly, when using Xen, a malicious or buggy frontend driver may be able to cause resource leaks. Let us see what and how to fix these security vulnerabilities on FreeBSD.

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How to check boot path (partition) in Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 26 février 2021 à 11:57

{Updated} How do I identify the boot device or boot path in Linux operating system?

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How to check memory utilization in Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 25 février 2021 à 19:24

How do I check memory utilization in Linux using command-line and GUI options?

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How to install Dart on Linux and set up VIM as IDE

Par Vivek Gite — 15 février 2021 à 08:27

Dart is easy to use BSD licensed programming language to build mobile, desktop, server, and web apps. Google creates and maintains the Dart ecosystem. It follows C-style syntax. We can compile code either to the native platform or JavaScript. Flutter allows building iOS/Android mobile and desktop/web apps from a single code base. Let us see how to install Dart programming language on a Debian or Ubuntu Linux and set vim as IDE.

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How To Install EPEL Repo on an RHEL 8

Par Vivek Gite — 15 février 2021 à 06:41

{Updated} How do I install the extra repositories such as Fedora EPEL repo on an Red Hat Enterprise Linux server version 8?

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Adding spice to your sudo session with a lecture file on Linux or Unix

Par Vivek Gite — 14 février 2021 à 11:37

groot
Despite some severe bugs in sudo, it remains the defacto tool to gain root shell or run command as another user on Linux, macOS, and Unix-like systems. The sudo command allows the system administrator to grant an individual user access to unprivileged commands. For instance, I can give developers the ability to restart the Apache webserver or PHP/Python process on a Linux server. Let us see how to remind developers and unprivileged users about the power of sudo for fun and profit. In this quick tip, I will show you how to add some spice to your sudo session with a lecture file on Linux or Unix.

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How to reset WordPress password using MySQL CLI

Par Vivek Gite — 13 février 2021 à 15:58

How to reset WordPress password using MySQL CLI

So bizarrely, I forgot my WordPress admin password, including my login name. I did not add my login details to my password manager either. The container image that I built lacking outgoing email support (SMTP) too. I got stuck. Fortunately, I have full root access to my MySQL/MariaDB server hosted at AWS EC2, and here is how to reset a forgotten WordPress password using MySQL command-line.

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How to import WireGuard profile using nmcli on Linux

Par Vivek Gite — 4 février 2021 à 12:55

I have multiple wireguard profiles on Linux. Is there any way to import WireGuard profile (/etc/wireguard/wg{0,1,2}.conf files) using nmcli on Linux? I don't want to become root and run systemctl start wg-quick@wg0. How can I import an existing WireGuard profile from using NetworkManager command-line interface?

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Heads up: Microsoft repo secretly installed on all Raspberry Pi’s Linux OS

Par Vivek Gite — 4 février 2021 à 10:53

Raspberry Pi is a little useful computer for learning programming and building projects. It comes with Debian Linux based modified operating system called Raspbian. It is the most wildly installed OS on RPi. In a recent update, the Raspberry Pi Foundation installed a Microsoft apt repository on all machines running Raspberry Pi OS without the person's or admin's knowledge. Every time a Raspbian device is updated by having this repo, it will ping a Microsoft server. Microsoft telemetry has a bad reputation in the Linux community. Let us see why and how this matters to Linux users.

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How to remove carriage return in Linux or Unix

Par Vivek Gite — 2 février 2021 à 12:48

How do I remove all the carriage returns \r (^M) from a file in Unix using the command-line options?

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Linode cloud firewall: Do you need it to protect the Linux server?

Par Vivek Gite — 2 février 2021 à 06:00

Final firewall policy
Linode is an original cloud platform and founded before AWS. Back then, we used to call them VPS (Virtual Private Server). Recently they added a new firewall feature to control network access to my Linode server from the Cloud. Let us test drive Linode cloud firewall.

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How to password protect directory with Nginx .htpasswd authentication

Par Vivek Gite — 31 janvier 2021 à 13:09

I need to restrict access to /app/ directory on Nginx. How do I set up password protect a directory with Nginx .htpasswd authentication on Linux or Unix-like systems?

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How To Install Python On Linux 2.x/3.x latest version

Par Vivek Gite — 31 janvier 2021 à 12:26

{Updated} How do I install python an interactive high-level object-oriented language on Linux operating system?

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Linux Desktop Fun: Bonsai tree generator for CLI lovers

Par Vivek Gite — 31 janvier 2021 à 09:01

cbonsai
Bonsai (盆栽) is nothing but planting in a try. It is old age Japanese art of growing small trees in pots. Now you can do that with your Linux or Unix terminal easily for fun and profit. Let us look into the Bonsai tree generator called cbonsai created in Clang and Bash.

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How to check if bash variable defined in script

Par Vivek Gite — 29 janvier 2021 à 12:30

I need to set a bash environment variable called PURGEIMAGE and take specific actions in my script. For example, if PURGEIMAGE set, then purge images from CDN else just URL. I am going to call my script as PURGEIMAGE=yes ./purgecache.sh url1 url2. So how do I know if a bash variable set at the CLI and used in my bash script running on Linux or Unix-like systems?

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Bash Shell: Replace a String With Another String In All Files Using sed and Perl -pie Options

Par Vivek Gite — 29 janvier 2021 à 08:20

{Updated} How do I replace a string with another string in all files using sed, Bash or Perl?

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How to install Linux VM on FreeBSD using bhyve and ZFS

Par Vivek Gite — 28 janvier 2021 à 12:47

Using bhyve on FreeBSD and installing Debian Linux 10

Bhyve (BSD hypervisor") is a free and opensource hypervisor for FreeBSD. We can use Bhyve to run Linux, Windows, and *BSD guest operating system as a virtual machine. Let us see how to install Linux VM using Bhyve on FreeBSD host operating system along with ZFS and bridged networking.

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How to set up static IP address on Debian Linux 10/11

Par Vivek Gite — 27 janvier 2021 à 18:56

I have Debian 10 Linux cloud server, and it is configured to get IP addresses via DHCP. How do I convert DHCP address to static IP address settings?

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Critical bug in sudo puts Linux and Unix systems at risk

Par Vivek Gite — 27 janvier 2021 à 09:39

heap based sudo bug
Any logged-in unprivileged user can abuse an old bug in sudo to gain root privileges. It was rated as an important security issue for Linux and Unix-like operating systems. The Qualys research team has discovered the heap overflow vulnerability in sudo itself has been hiding in plain sight for nearly 10 years. The bug allows any local users to gain root access without authentication (no user's password needed). We need to apply patches to our operating systems as soon as possible.

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How to install Homebrew on macOS to use the brew package manager

Par Vivek Gite — 22 janvier 2021 à 12:43

Homebrew is an essential package manager for developers, sysadmins, and power users on macOS. Homebrew allows us to install the latest and updated version of popular applications, packages, and developer tools. Homebrew is the painless way to install required packages on your Mac. For instance, we can install PostgreSQL, Python, PHP, Bash, Nginx, Apache, and much more using brew command. This page explains how to install and use Homebrew on the macOS system to get missing packages. Homebrew installs the apps you need that Apple didn't include in their base operating system or app store.

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How to force awk not to print a newline

Par Vivek Gite — 22 janvier 2021 à 08:35

I have two columns (fields) in my text file. I am trying to insert '|
FOO This is a description
BAR Another description for bar
TEXT Another description for TEXT

So I ran awk '{ print $1 "|"; $1=""; print}' input > output but print command is adding a new line:
FOO|
This is a description
BAR|
Another description for bar
TEXT|
Another description for TEXT

Is there any way to tell awk not to print a newline and create the file? Here is what I want so that I can create final HTML table based upon '|'
FOO|This is a description
BAR|Another description for bar
TEXT|Another description for TEXT

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